UVC Dosimeter Research

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Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology (2021), 1–6

Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) monitoring made simple: Colorimetric indicators to assess delivery of UV-C light by room decontamination devices

Jennifer L. Cadnum BS1, Basya S. Pearlmutter BS1, Sarah N. Redmond BS2, Annette L. Jencson CIC1,
Kevin J. Benner BS3 and Curtis J. Donskey MD2,4

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the use of colorimetric indicators for monitoring ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light delivery to sites in patient rooms.

Methods: In laboratory testing, we examined the correlation between changes in color of 2 commercial colorimetric indicators and log10 reductions in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridioides difficile spores with exposure to increasing doses of UV-C from a low-pressure mercury room decontamination device. In patient rooms, 1 of the colorimetric indicators was used to assess UV-C dose delivery to 27 sites in the room.

Results: In laboratory testing, the manufacturer’s reference colors for MRSA and C. difficile reduction corresponded with doses of ∼10,000 and 46,000 μJ/cm2; these doses resulted in >3 log10 reductions in MRSA and C. difficile spores, respectively. In patient rooms, the colorimetric indicators demonstrated suboptimal delivery of UV-C dosing to shadowed areas, which was improved by providing cycles on each side of the patient bed rather than in a single position and altering device placement. Increasing duration of exposure increased the number of sites achieving adequate dosing to kill C. difficile spores.

Conclusions: Commercial colorimetric indicators provide rapid and easy-to-interpret information on the UV-C dose delivered to sites in patient rooms. The indicators may be useful for training environmental services personnel and optimizing the effectiveness of UV-C room decontamination devices.

(Received 3 November 2020; accepted 5 March 2021)

Quantitative UV-C dose validation with photochromic indicators for informed N95 emergency decontamination

Alison Su, Samantha M. Grist, Alisha Geldert, Anjali Gopal, Amy E. Herr

ABSTRACT 

With COVID-19 N95 shortages, frontline medical personnel are forced to reuse this disposable – but sophisticated–multilayer respirator. Widely used to decontaminate nonporous surfaces, UV-C light has demonstrated germicidal efficacy on porous, non-planar N95 respirators when all surfaces receive >1.0 J/cm2 dose. Of utmost importance across disciplines, translation of empirical evidence to implementation relies upon UV-C measurements frequently confounded by radiometer complexities. To enable rigorous on-respirator measurements, we introduce a photochromic indicator dose quantification technique for: (1) UV-C treatment design and (2) in-process UV-C dose validation. While addressing outstanding indicator limitations of qualitative readout and insufficient dynamic range, our methodology establishes that color-changing dosimetry can achieve the necessary accuracy (>90%), uncertainty (<10%), and UV-C specificity (>95%) required for UV-C dose measurements. In a measurement infeasible with radiometers, we observe a striking ~20× dose variation over N95s within one decontamination system. Furthermore, we adapt consumer electronics for accessible quantitative readout and use optical attenuators to extend indicator dynamic range >10× to quantify doses relevant for N95 decontamination. By transforming photochromic indicators into quantitative dosimeters, we illuminate critical considerations for both photochromic indicators themselves and UV-C decontamination processes.